Sunday, September 20, 2009

Machines and the Middle Class: The Textile Revolution

A visual history of the impact of the industrial revolution on textile design.
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Slide 1

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Slide 2

The stocking frame – mechanical knitting machine

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1585 – William Lee invents the stocking frame (known as framework knitting)

1598 – Modifies it to knit both silk and wool stockings

1663 - London Company of Framework Knitters granted a charter

1758 – Jedediah Strutt invents ‘Derby Rib’ attachment making it profitable to knit cotton socks on the machine

1812 – 25, 000 stocking frames in use
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Slide 3

The flying shuttle: new technologies lead to protectionism and mercantilism

1733 – John Kay develops the flying shuttle: larger widths of fabric can be produced by a single weaver

Countries try to maintain control of new technology through protectionism and mercantilism.

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Width of brocaded silk, French, 1760
21.5 inches wide, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Slide 4

The Spinning Jenny and productivity

c.1764 by James Hargreaves or Thomas Highs
One worker can spin 8 times as much yarn, later increased to 80 times
Often worked by children

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Spinning jenny from a museum in Wuppteral Germany

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Child labour, South Carolina USA, 1908
“She just happened in…she was working steadily”
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Slide 5

Water Power

1771 – Invention of the water frame, weaving powered by water

1779 – Invention of the spinning mule – strong thread on a massive scale

1785 – Power loom, initially powered by water, then by steam.

1823 – 10,000 power looms in England

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Power loom factory, Finland, 1877
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The cotton gin, slavery, and cotton fabric

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Cotton afternoon dresses, French, ca 1855, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Block Printing

1700s - technique of printing from engraved wooden blocks developed

Can carry many colours, but are time consuming to produce.

Fine details created by adding copper borders to the blocks

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Block printing with turkey red, 1840

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Slide 8

Engraved Copper Plates


1750s a new technique of engraved copper plates was developed-plates and designs were larger and could carry more detail.

1798 engraved plates became rollers-entire length of cotton could be printed continuously in single mechanical process. 500 pieces could be produced per day

Engraved plates can only carry one colour: additional colours are added through block printing

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The activities of the factory, French, Jouy, 1784, Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Colours added through block printing, French, Jouy, 1787, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Slide 9

Bleach

Pre 1800 – bleaching takes up to six months
1800 – powdered chlorine and lime bleaching invented, bleaching shortened to days
Bleach can be used to create small, detailed patterns: bleach works with resists and mordants to preserve/create spaces for new colours

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Persian Shah printing on cotton, Russian, 1896, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Slide 10

The Jacquard Loom

1801 - invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard
Allows greater complexity of patterns and weaves

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Jacquard loom, Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester, England

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Day dress, French, 1845-1850, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Slide 11

Tartan

1815 – Clan tartans registered (and invented)

1822 – King George IV visits Scotland, tartan becomes the national dress

1848 – Queen Victoria rents, and subsequently buys, Balmoral Castle

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Tartan silk dress, American, 1857, Metropolitan Museum of Art

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First colour photograph, 1861
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The Sewing Machine

1851 – invention of the sewing machine

1854 - embroidery machines: machine embroidery taken up in Ireland and Britain

1870 - marketable family sewing machine

1873 - Singer factory

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Album quilt, New York state, America, ca 1860, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Borders applied with sewing machine
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Slide 13

Aniline Dyes

1856 – First aniline dye, mauveine, invented by William Henry Perkins
Late1850’s –Other aniline dyes created: Magenta and fierce purple-pink
1860 - aniline black, Manchester brown, yellow
1863 - first green not to go blue
1884 - Congo blue an indigo substitute

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Shoe of silk decorated with aniline dyed embroidery, 1873, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Taste and the rise of the middle class

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Princess de Broglie, 1851, Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Day dress, French, 1872, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Evening gown, American, 1884-1886, Metropolitan Museum of Art

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The letter of recommendation, Luigi Busi, 1874
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Day dress, American, 1883-1885, Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Sofa, American, 1860, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Domestic textile arts

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The Great Exhibition of 1851

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Italian print, Owen Jones, 1873, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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The Arts and Crafts Movement

Led by William Morris, believed designer should know how to create product
Small-scale craftmanship
Nothing in your home that is not beautiful
Linked to Pre-Raphealites and Art Nouveau

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Wandle print, William Morris, 1884, Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Allegorical figures, 1893, Metropolitan Museum of Art

See also: 

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